A regular decimal number is the sum of the digits multiplied with power of 10.
137 in base 10 is equal to each digit multiplied with its corresponding power of 10:
13710 = 1×102+3×101+7×100 = 100+30+7
Hex numbers are read the same way, but each digit counts power of 16 instead of power of 10.
For hex number with n digits:
dn-1 ... d3 d2 d1 d0
Multiply each digit of the hex number with its corresponding power of 16 and sum:
decimal = dn-1×16n-1+...+d3×163+d2×162+d1×161+d0×160
3B in base 16 is equal to each digit multiplied with its corresponding 16n:
3B16 = 3×161+11×160 = 48+11 = 5910
E7A9 in base 16 is equal to each digit multiplied with its corresponding 16n:
E7A916 = 14×163+7×162+10×161+9×160 = 57344+1792+160+9 = 5930510
0.8 in base 16:
0.816 = 0×160+8×16-1 = 0+0.5 = 0.510
Decimal number system is the most commonly used and the most familiar one to the general public. It is also known as Base 10 numbering system since it is based on 10 following symbols: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. In decimal system, every digit has its own position as well as the decimal point. I.e. the number 356.74 has 4 in the Hundredths position, 7 in the Tenths position, 6 in the Units position, 5 in the Tens position, and 3 in the Hundreds position. Decimal number system is also one of the oldest known numeral system, which is historically related to Hindu-Arabic numeral system.
Hex, or hexadecimal, is a number system of base 16. This number system is especially interesting because in our casually used decimal system we have only 10 digits to represent numbers. As hex system has 16 digits, the extra needed 6 digits are represented by the first 6 letters of English alphabet. Hence, hex digits are 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9 A, B, C, D, E, F. This number system is the most commonly used in mathematics and information technologies. I.e. in html programming colors can be represented by a 6-digit hexadecimal number: FFFFFF represents white, 000000 represents black, and so on.
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